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Sunday, May 30, 2010

stem cell

Current uses of Stem Cell

Current uses of Stem Cell

It have many many uses in world....It has many uses in every health problem...........
Every people looking it for sick's remedy

Brain Damage

Stroke and traumatic brain injury lead to cell death, characterized by a loss of neurons and oligodendrocytes within the brain. Healthy adult brains contain neural stem cells, these divide and act to maintain general stem cell numbers or become progenitor cells.
In healthy adult animals, progenitor cells migrate within the brain and function primarily to maintain neuron populations for olfaction (the sense of smell). Interestingly, in pregnancy and after injury, this system appears to be regulated by growth factors and can increase the rate at which new brain matter is formed.

In the case of brain injury, although the reparative process appears to initiate, substantial recovery is rarely observed in adults, suggesting a lack of robustness.
Recently, results from research conducted in rats subjected to stroke, suggested that administration of drugs to increase the stem cell division rate and direct the survival and differentiation of newly formed cells could be successful. In the study referenced below, biological drugs were administered after stroke to activate two key steps in the reparative process.
Findings from this study seem to support a new strategy for the treatment of stroke using a simple elegant approach, aimed at directing recovery from stroke by potentially protecting and/or regenerating new tissue. The authors found that, within weeks, recovery of brain structure is accompanied by recovery of lost limb function suggesting the potential for development of a new class of stroke therapy or brain injury therapy in humans.


Research injecting neural (adult) stem cells into the brains of dogs has shown to be be very successful in treating cancerous tumors. With traditional techniques brain cancer is almost impossible to treat because it spreads so rapidly. Researchers at the Harvard Medical School induced intracranial tumours in rodents.
Then, they injected human neural stem cells. Within days the cells had migrated into the cancerous area and produced cytosine deaminase, an enzyme that converts a non-toxic pro-drug into a chemotheraputic agent. As a result, the injected substance was able to reduce tumor mass by 81 percent. The stem cells neither differentiated nor turned tumorigenic.
Some researchers believe that the key to finding a cure for cancer is to inhibit cancer stem cells, where the cancer tumor originates. Currently, cancer treatments are designed to kill all cancer cells, but through this method, researchers would be able to develop drugs to specifically target these stem cells.

Uses of Stem Cell

Uses of

Stem Cell

The cells multiply tirelessly in laboratory dishes, offering a self-replenishing supply from which scientists hope to grow replacement tissues for people with various diseases, including bone marrow for cancer patients, neurons for people with Alzheimer's disease, and pancreatic cells for people with diabetes

Already, researchers have used the stem cells to grow human heart muscle cells that beat in unison in a laboratory dish, as well as blood cells, blood vessel cells, bone, cartilage, neurons and skeletal muscle.

what is stem cell therapy?

what is stem cell therapy?

Advanced Parkinson's Disease

In the course of progressive or traumatic neurological disorders, there is an irreplaceable loss of cells leading to a gradual loss of organ function. Despite limited and often ineffective attempts to self-repair, the body's neural plasticity is not sufficient to restore its lost circuitry. Classical medical therapy, which attempts to modify the biochemistry of these events, does not prevent or stop the basic progressive cell loss, but in fact may cause additional problems. Cell therapy is the most fascinating revolution in medicine currently underway. Cell therapy results from the understanding of complex molecular biology events triggering cellular division and development.
A century-old dogma attributed to the Spanish neuroscientist Cajal, stated that adult brain neurons can not multiply and repair itself. This dogma was recently refuted with the extraordinary discovery of the presence, in the human brain, of cells able to divide and differentiate. These cells, called neural stem cells, are the progenitors of most central nervous system cells. Most importantly, these cells are the basic seeds in the new field of neural cell therapy.
Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a profound loss of neurons in the substantia nigra, a small region in the brainstem. This cell loss results in the degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine system that regulates motor function. This, in turn, leads to motor dysfunction, consisting of poverty and slowness of voluntary movements, tremor, and stooped posture, rigidity, and gait disturbance. Modern knowledge on the causes of Parkinson's disease indicates that successful functional restoration can be achieved by replacing the deficient dopamine molecule in the damaged area of the brain.
Previous studies using fetal dopamine producing tissue implanted in patients with Parkinson's disease showed partial recovery, with limited reproducibility and efficacy. The major limitations of the fetal transplantation procedure were practical, ethical and there were several safety concerns related to the use of fetal tissue.
The isolation of neural progenitors (or neural-stem) cells has opened the potential for use in studies of brain repair and neurodegenerative disorders. These progenitor cells have an extended self-renewal capacity and possess the potential to give rise to all three major brain cell types. They can grow into a large number of progenitor cells in vitro and can be used as a source of newly formed cells for transplantation. Since they are cultured under specific conditions, critical events such as maturation and differentiation are precisely controlled by growth conditions. Methods have been developed to induce progenitor cells to become dopamine neurons, or several other types of neurons. These induced mature neurons can serve as an excellent source for cell replacement therapy in different clinical conditions, including Parkinson's disease.
Cell therapy for Parkinson's disease using progenitor cells differentiated into mature neurons such as dopamine neurons is currently under intense investigation. Because of the rapidly evolving nature of stem cell science and strict implementation of regulatory guidelines in the use of biological therapies, NeuroGeneration has continued to maintain its pioneering position in pursuing its clinical studies.



Vet-Stem Regenerative Cell Therapy is based on a clinical technology originally licensed from Artecel Inc., Sunnyvale, CA. Original patents from University of Pittsburgh and Duke University.

  • Rationale based on consistent therapeutic success in numerous animal models of disease (see sidebar)
  • Adipose-derived adult stem cells (Vet-Stem Regenerative Cells: VSRC™)
  • Autologous cell therapy
  • Currently used in horses with bowed tendons, ligament injuries, and fractures, and in dogs with osteoarthritis
  • More than 2,000 horses treated since 2003
  • No systemic adverse events reported and <>3-6
  • Demonstrated efficacy with VSRC therapy in horses and dogs
    • Cornell University double-blind, placebo controlled study5
    • Retrospective studies3,4
    • Case studies6
Why use adipose-derived regenerative cells rather than regenerative cells derived from bone marrow?
Adipose-derived regenerative cells are:
  • Readily available source
  • Can be collected in far greater concentrations than those from bone marrow24
  • Able to differentiate into multiple lineages implicating their potential in bone, cartilage, and cardiac repair23 (See figure above)
  • Fractions isolated from adipose tissue contain a heterogeneous mixture of regenerative cells, including:23
    • Mesenchymal stem cells
    • Endothelial progenitor cells
    • Pericytes
    • Immune cells
    • Fibroblasts
    • Other growth factor-secreting bioactive cells
Differences in Regenerative Medicine compared to traditional medicine;
  • Does not rely on a single target receptor or a single pathway for its action
  • Regenerative cell mixture is delivered either directly to the traumatic wound (e.g.: tendonitis, desmitis, fracture) or are delivered systemically (e.g.: liver disease, renal disease)
  • Regenerative cells can differentiate into many tissue types, induce repair, and stimulate regeneration22
  • Regenerative cells "communicate" with the cells of their local environment through paracrine and autocrine modalities, creating the optimal environment for natural healing25
  • Regenerative cells produce a variety of both secreted and cell surface substances that regulate tissue growth, integrity, and function25

What is Stem Cell?

In 1999, Science journal recognized the process of extraction of stem cells from human body, - the third significant discovery in biology of 20 century after opening of DNA and decoding of human’s genome.


There are different methods with which people are trying to treat diseases. Among them surgery and chemical (pills) treatment are the most popular, spread and acknowledged. Comparing to this, Cell treatment is one of the youngest, but dynamically developing approach to treat different diseases and we see a bright future and many interesting discoveries in this field.

The most controversial and challenging in the cell method are experiments with the so called, Stem Cells. Thanks to the Stem Cells you could not only treat such disease as diabetes, oncology, immune deficit, parkinson’s, but also can revive your body for esthetic cosmetology purposes.

So, what is stem cell? Firstly, it is immature cell able to self-rejuvenate and evolve into particular cell of the body. In other words, these stem cells have ability to turn into muscle, bone, nerve and in all of other forms of tissues. This theory is grounded on the idea that billions of peoples’ or animals’ cells grew up merely from one cell which is called zygote (joined male and female gamete cells). This single stem cell consists of information not only about body, but also about scheme of successive development. During the process of growing this impregnate egg-cell divides and gives beginning to the all other different kinds of body’s cells. The genome of this stem cell is situated in so called “zero point”. Mechanisms, which determine specialization of the future cell are still not switched on, which means that potentially the cell can become any kind of cells, depending on body needs.

In the body of adult the stem cells can be found generally in the bone marrow, and in very small amounts in all organs and tissues. The stem cells provide restoration of injured tissues and organs. When they receive signal about defect, they rush through blood vessels to fix a problem. As we noticed above, in this way stem cells can repair practically any damage by changing into certain kind of cells, requested by body. But the problem is that in the adult body the number of these cells is very limited and this number is not enough for the struggle with many serious diseases.

The stem cells medication approach is directly connected to the kind of stem cell being used. This has influence not only on the quality and terms of treatment, but also on the cost. There are different ways in which contemporary medicine can get stem calls. As a rule, they are:
  • embryonic cells - from donor or clone
  • patient own stem cells - from spinal cord
  • hemopoietic stem cells - from umbilical cord blood.

All of the above mentioned methods have their advantages and disadvantages. However, for the best results, most advanced clinics are using different types of embryonic stem cells: hemopoietic, nervous, thymic, muscular, cutaneous, etc. Each specific stem cell type has its own medical effects. The essential results have been achieved through combination of different cell types, depending on mechanisms of certain diseases and stages of their progress, etc.

Nowadays, Switzerland, Russia, Germany, Mexico, Barbados and some other countries are having clinics which propose stem cell transplantation treatment.
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